| Essential Reading
for the Struggling Reader:
an Accelerated Reading Program
System/Texas Education Agency
activities in this manual are drawn from converging research evidence
on the effectiveness of critical components to early reading success
(Snow, Burns, & Griffin, 1998).
These instructional elements include: phonological awareness; fluent
reading in a variety of texts; comprehension strategies and vocabulary
strategies; and word analysis.
To improve their reading proficiency, students who struggle with
reading need intensive, systematic, and explicit instruction in these
components in addition to their regular classroom reading instruction.
The activities in this manual are intended to supplement the regular
classroom reading program and to provide the additional practice
struggling readers need to develop basic reading strategies.
This manual is divided into four sections: Fluency, Phonological
Awareness, Instructional Reading with Comprehension, and Word Analysis
The two sample lesson plans on the following pages illustrate how the
four sections can be organized into 30–35 minute lessons over
span of a week.
The original lesson plan, containing all of the elements taught in
equal time frames each day, is appropriate to use with students who can
read at least 15 words per minute (wpm) on grade level text and are
making reading fluency gains of at least two words per minute, per week.
The adapted lesson plan is more appropriate for students who read less
then 15 wpm in grade level text and gain less than two words per minute
The adapted lesson plan allows for increased time in fluency building
and word analysis activities to increase automatic word recognition,
while continuing to provide consistent reinforcement in the areas of
phonological awareness and instructional reading.
Each section of the manual contains an overview of the instructional
element, followed by progress-monitoring activities and modifications
for English language learners.
The subsequent lessons and activities in each element can be used to
review, practice, and reinforce the skill or skills associated with the
Lesson plans for the activities include the objective for the lesson, a
list of materials needed, and steps for completing the activity.
In addition, the plans include adaptations for different levels of
instruction and for different target skills, and modifications for
English language learners.
Appendices provide directions for making materials, word pattern lists
for use with many of the activities, and lists of decodable book series
and teacher resources.
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