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Riddle Of The Pilgrims

 Answer : If it were not for the Abbot's conditions that the number of guests in any room may not exceed three, and that every room must be occupied, it would have been possible to accommodate either 24, 27, 30, 33, 36, 39, or 42 pilgrims.  But to accommodate 24 pilgrims so that there shall be twice as many sleeping on the upper floor as on the lower floor, and eleven persons on each side of the building, it will be found necessary to leave some of the rooms empty.  If, on the other hand, we try to put up 33, 36, 39 or 42 pilgrims, we shall find that in every case we are obliged to place more than three persons in some of the rooms.  Thus we know that the number of pilgrims originally announced (whom, it will be remembered, it was possible to accommodate under the conditions of the Abbot) must have been 27, and that, since three more than this number were actually provided with beds, the total number of pilgrims was 30.  The accompanying diagram shows how they might be arranged, and if in each instance we regard the upper floor as placed above the lower one, it will be seen that there are eleven persons on each side of the building, and twice as many above as below.

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